Women and History



Welcome Remarks


Mary Racelis | Opening Talk


Isabel Nazareno | Archiving Women: The Ateneo Library of Women’s Writings

This talk provides an overview of the collections of the Ateneo Library of Women’s Writings (ALiWW) and highlights the women’s archive as an important resource in the study of history. What does an archive offer to researchers and how can it help provide a more textured view of our society?


Ma. Rita Lourdes A. Alfaro | Women’s Criminality in Spanish Colonial Philippines

The crimes and criminality of women seem to be “gendered” in history. Academic research on this topic has placed its spotlight on male-committed offenses giving rise to the misconception that crime and criminality is male-centered. It is as if women do not have the predisposition to commit a crime, more so, that the criminality of women is trivial. This paper endeavors to remove the proverbial cloak of invisibility on women’s offenses in Spanish colonial Philippines.


Estela Banasihan | “Moderna Filipina”: Framing the “Filipina” in American Colonial Education

(Abstract to follow)


Kristine Michelle Santos | A Tale of Two Women in American Pistaym: Intersections of Filipina Modernity as seen through Rosing and Ponyang Halobaybay

Our American colonial experience during the 20th century introduced modernity that led to developments across different sectors in Philippine society and contributing to what is remembered in history as 'Pistaym'. At the heart of this is the Filipina, whose life intersects across these modern developments. In this paper, I examine these women and the different intersections that define their identity during Pistaym through two iconic comic characters of Filipino modernity: Rosing and Ponyang Halobaybay. Using methods from comic and new media studies, this presentation highlights perceptions of female modernity and its affective impact on notions of Filipina identity.


Patricia Ysabel Wong | “Sex-Mad Moral Bolsheviks”: Debates on the Ideal Filipino Girl in 1931 Colonial Manila

In 1931, two books with similar topics appeared in the Philippine press: My Ideal Filipino Girl by Ma. Paz Mendoza-Guazon, and Our Modern Woman: A National Problem by Perfecto E. Laguio. Both texts concerned themselves with the subject of Filipino girlhood, which became a matter of national attention during the 1920s and 30s. In their essays on girlhood, Mendoza-Guazon and Laguio debated about what sets of behaviors and practices constituted the ideal Filipino girl, coming to vastly different conclusions. This lecture will discuss those behaviors and practices in question outlined in both texts, as well as situate these texts in the context of 1931 Manila. Furthermore, it will show how these debates revealed societal anxieties about national identity and girlhood in American colonial Manila.


Frances Anthea R. Redison | There’s a Time for Beauty: The 1944 Lakambini Popularity Contest during the Japanese Occupation of Iloilo, Panay Island, Philippines

This paper documents the socio-civic activities of the Ilonggas during the Japanese occupation of Panay Island and how they struggled to bring back normalcy to their lives during the war. While most of the literature on the Japanese occupation focuses on women’s involvement in the resistance movement either as combatants or auxiliary support, this study presents another perspective of women’s activities during wartime period. The Ilonggas joined the Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas’ (KALIBAPI) cultural and industrial rally that featured the Lakambini Popularity Contest in April 1944. Women’s participation to beauty contests can be traced to the prewar Philippine Carnival which crowned its first Carnival Queen in 1908. Using the case of Iloilo, the paper argues that there was a continuity in women’s activities during the prewar to occupation years

Angela Louise M. Rosario | Pacific Stars and Stripes: The Representation of Yamato Nadeshiko

After World War II, Japan was occupied by the General Headquarters of the Allied Powers (GHQ) in which sought and brought great changes in the Japanese constitution in its pursuit to “help” Japan and “liberate” Japanese women through the enactment of policies.Media was one way for GHQ to disseminate information effectively without the knowledge of Japanese. For this study, Pacific Stars and Stripes, a GHQ-owned newspaper born out of the needs of the GHQ army, will be used. It seeks to look at how the GHQ-enacted policies, specifically the Equal Rights Amendment, influenced the notion of womanhood in the newspaper, and potentially affects its representation of women.



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